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Adaptive Modeling, Adaptive Data Assimilation and Adaptive Sampling.

Lermusiaux, P.F.J, 2007. Adaptive Modeling, Adaptive Data Assimilation and Adaptive Sampling. Refereed invited manuscript. Special issue on "Mathematical Issues and Challenges in Data Assimilation for Geophysical Systems: Interdisciplinary Perspectives". C.K.R.T. Jones and K. Ide, Eds. Physica D, Vol 230, 172-196, doi: 10.1016/j.physd.2007.02.014.

For efficient progress, model properties and measurement needs can adapt to oceanic events and interactions as they occur. The combination of models and data via data assimilation can also be adaptive. These adaptive concepts are discussed and exemplified within the context of comprehensive real-time ocean observing and prediction systems. Novel adaptive modeling approaches based on simplified maximum likelihood principles are developed and applied to physical and physical-biogeochemical dynamics. In the regional examples shown, they allow the joint calibration of parameter values and model structures. Adaptable components of the Error Subspace Statistical Estimation (ESSE) system are reviewed and illustrated. Results indicate that error estimates, ensemble sizes, error subspace ranks, covariance tapering parameters and stochastic error models can be calibrated by such quantitative adaptation. New adaptive sampling approaches and schemes are outlined. Illustrations suggest that these adaptive schemes can be used in real time with the potential for most efficient sampling.