loader graphic

Loading content ...

K2D: Knowledge and Data from the Deep to Space

P.F.J. Lermusiaux, P.J. Haley Jr.,
C. Mirabito, C. Dahill

Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Center for Ocean Engineering
Mechanical Engineering
Cambridge, Massachusetts

Lead Principal Investigator:
D. Hart (MIT)
Co-Principal Investigators:
O. de Weck (MIT),
J. Leonard (MIT),
P.F.J. Lermusiaux (MIT),
D. Newman (MIT)

Portuguese Institutions:
CINTAL/UAlg University of Algarve
CMEMS/IB-S University of Minho
ISISE/IB-S University of Minho
University of Azores
Ongoing MIT-MSEAS Research
MSEAS K2D-supported Publications
Additional Links
Background Information


This research is sponsored by the MIT Portugal Program.


The deep sea is currently at the heart of the last remaining, big knowledge frontier. Information about the deep sea is critical to close the loop from oceans to near space. The breath of scales is large, but the challenges are mostly technological. Inhospitable and extreme environments are the obstacle, where the rules are radically different. Efficient exploration, monitoring and data communication systems for deep sea are essential to

Background information and overall vision is available below.

Top of page

Ongoing MIT-MSEAS Research

Long-Term (Collaborative) MIT-MSEAS Goal:

For this project, the MSEAS team will develop and apply its expertise in multiscale physical-biogeochemical-acoustical ocean modeling and data assimilation, Bayesian inference and scientific machine learning, and principled optimal planning for coordinated fleets of AUVs, surface autonomous vehicles, UAVs and other aircrafts, and near space assets.

K2D Team and Project Meetings

Prizes and Awards


MSEAS K2D-supported Publications

Top of page

Additional Links

Top of page

Background Information and Vision

Our work is inspired from the overall vision of the project. The longer-term vision of K2D is to: (i) construct a new network of deep sea fixed nodes, self-sustaining in terms of energy and communications, that will support sensors for sound, physical, chemical and biological ecosystems monitoring; (ii) add new variables to the group of ‘earth vital signs’, e.g. based on listening to the center of the earth from the bottom of the sea; (iii) utilize logistics platforms along the ocean for the operation of AUVs that will extend the reach of the nodes, extending the influence area of each node and eventually creating a monitoring and exploration continuum; (iv) establish a connection between the deep sea and near space by including light deployment media, such as atmospheric balloons and UAVs, which will guarantee the direct measurement of physical and environmental variables from the water surface to the higher atmospheric layers, and by satellite surveillance that complements the idealized system by contributing with large scale indirect monitoring; (v) deploy mass scale and swarm sensors for characterizing the entire water column, with reliable and efficient data retrieval both at the water surface and at the ocean bottom.

Top of page

Go to the MSEAS home page