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Issues and Progress in the Prediction of Ocean Submesoscale Features and Internal Waves

Duda T.F., W.G. Zhang, K.R. Helfrich, A.E. Newhall, Y.-T. Lin, J.F. Lynch, P.F.J. Lermusiaux, P.J. Haley Jr., J. Wilkin, 2014. Issues and Progress in the Prediction of Ocean Submesoscale Features and Internal Waves. OCEANS'14 MTS/IEEE.

Data-constrained dynamical ocean modeling for the purpose of detailed forecasting and prediction continues to evolve and improve in quality. Modeling methods and computational capabilities have each improved. The result is that mesoscale phenomena can be modeled with skill, given sufficient data. However, many submesoscale features are less well modeled and remain largely unpredicted from a deterministic event standpoint, and possibly also from a statistical property standpoint. A multi-institution project is underway with goals of uncovering more of the details of a few submesoscale processes, working toward better predictions of their occurrence and their variability. A further component of our project is application of the new ocean models to ocean acoustic modeling and prediction. This paper focuses on one portion of the ongoing work: Efforts to link nonhydrostatic-physics models of continental-shelf nonlinear internal wave evolution to data-driven regional models. Ocean front-related effects are also touched on.

Dynamics and Lagrangian Coherent Structures in the Ocean and their Uncertainty

Lermusiaux, P.F.J. and F. Lekien, 2005. Dynamics and Lagrangian Coherent Structures in the Ocean and their Uncertainty. Extended Abstract in report of the "Dynamical System Methods in Fluid Dynamics" Oberwolfach Workshop. Jerrold E. Marsden and Jurgen Scheurle (Eds.), Mathematisches Forschungsinstitut Oberwolfach, July 31st - August 6th, 2005, Germany. 2pp.

The observation, computation and study of “Lagrangian Coherent Structures” (LCS) in turbulent geophysical flows have been active areas of research in fluid mechanics for the last 30 years. Growing evidence for the existence of LCSs in geophysical flows (e.g., eddies, oscillating jets, chaotic mixing) and other fluid flows (e.g., separation pro le at the surface of an airfoil, entrainment and detrainment by a vortex) generates an increasing interest for the extraction and understanding of these structures as well as their properties. In parallel, realistic ocean modeling with dense data assimilation has developed in the past decades and is now able to provide accurate nowcasts and predictions of ocean flow fields to study coherent structures. Robust numerical methods and sufficiently fast hardware are now available to compute real-time forecasts of oceanographic states and render associated coherent structures. It is therefore natural to expect the direct predictions of LCSs based on these advanced models. The impact of uncertainties on the coherent structures is becoming an increasingly important question for practical applications. The transfer of these uncertainties from the ocean state to the LCSs is an unexplored but intriguing scientific problem. These two questions are the motivation and focus of this presentation. Using the classic formalism of continuous-discrete estimation [1], the spatially discretized dynamics of the ocean state vector x and observations are described by (1a) dx =M(x; t) + d yok (1b) = H(xk; tk) + k where M and H are the model and measurement model operator, respectively. The stochastic forcings d and k are Wiener/Brownian motion processes,   N(0;Q(t)), and white Gaussian sequences, k  N(0;Rk), respectively. In other words, Efd(t)d T (t)g := Q(t) dt. The initial conditions are also uncertain and x(t0) is random with a prior PDF, p(x(t0)), i.e. x(t0) = bx0 + n(0) with n(0) random. Of course, vectors and operators in Eqs. (1a-b) are multivariate which impacts the PDFs: e.g. their moments are also multivariate. The estimation problem at time t consists of combining all available information on x(t), the dynamics and data (Eqs. 1a-b), their prior distributions and the initial conditions p(x(t0)). Defining the set of all observations prior to time t by yt

Predictive Skill, Predictive Capability and Predictability in Ocean Forecasting

Robinson, A.R., P.J. Haley, P.F.J. Lermusiaux and W.G. Leslie, 2002. Predictive Skill, Predictive Capability and Predictability in Ocean Forecasting. Proceedings of "The OCEANS 2002 MTS/IEEE" conference, Holland Publications, 787-794.

We discuss the concepts involved in the evaluation and quantitative verification of ocean forecasts and present two predictive skill experiments to develop and research these concepts, carried out in the North Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea in 2001 and 2002. Ocean forecasting involves complex ocean observing and prediction systems for ocean regions with multi-scale interdisciplinary dynamical processes and strong, intermittent events. Now that ocean forecasting is becoming more common, it is critically important to interpret and evaluate regional forecasts in order to establish their usefulness to the scientific and applied communities. The Assessment of Skill for Coastal Ocean Transients (ASCOT) project is a series of real-time Coastal Predictive Skill (CPSE) and Rapid Environmental Assessment (REA) experiments and simulations focused on quantitative skill evaluation, carried out by the Harvard Ocean Prediction System group in collaboration with the NATO SACLANT Undersea Research Centre. ASCOT-01 was carried out in Massachusetts Bay and the Gulf of Maine in June 2001. ASCOT-02 took place in May 2002 in the Corsican Channel near the island of Elba in the Mediterranean Sea. Results from the ASCOT exercises highlight the dual use of data for skill evaluation and assimilation, real-time adaptive sampling and skill optimization and present both real-time and a posteriori evaluations of predictive skill and predictive capability.