## Dynamically Orthogonal Field Equations for Stochastic Fluid Flows and Particle Dynamics

Sapsis, Themis, 2011. *Dynamically Orthogonal Field Equations for Stochastic Fluid Flows and Particle Dynamics*. Ph.D. Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, February 2011.

In the past decades an increasing number of problems in continuum theory have been treated using stochastic dynamical theories. This is because dynamical systems governing real processes always contain some elements characterized by uncertainty or stochasticity. Uncertainties may arise in the system parameters, the boundary and initial conditions, and also in the external forcing processes. Also, many problems are treated through the stochastic framework due to the incomplete or partial understanding of the governing physical laws. In all of the above cases the existence of random perturbations, combined with the com- plex dynamical mechanisms of the system often leads to their rapid growth which causes distribution of energy to a broadband spectrum of scales both in space and time, making the system state particularly complex. Such problems are mainly described by Stochastic Partial Differential Equations and they arise in a number of areas including fluid mechanics, elasticity, and wave theory, describing phenomena such as turbulence, random vibrations, flow through porous media, and wave propagation through random media. This is but a partial listing of applications and it is clear that almost any phenomenon described by a field equation has an important subclass of problems that may profitably be treated from a stochastic point of view.

In this work, we develop a new methodology for the representation and evolution of the complete probabilistic response of infinite-dimensional, random, dynamical systems. More specifically, we derive an exact, closed set of evolution equations for general nonlinear continuous stochastic fields described by a Stochastic Partial Differential Equation. The derivation is based on a novel condition, the Dynamical Orthogonality (DO), on the representation of the solution. This condition is the “key” to overcome the redundancy issues of the full representation used while it does not restrict its generic features. Based on the DO condition we derive a system of field equations consisting of a Partial Differential Equation (PDE) for the mean field, a family of PDEs for the orthonormal basis that describe the stochastic subspace where uncertainty “lives” as well as a system of Stochastic Differential Equations that defines how the uncertainty evolves in the time varying stochastic subspace. If additional restrictions are assumed on the form of the representation, we recover both the Proper-Orthogonal-Decomposition (POD) equations and the generalized Polynomial- Chaos (PC) equations; thus the new methodology generalizes these two approaches. For the efficient treatment of the strongly transient character on the systems described above we derive adaptive criteria for the variation of the stochastic dimensionality that characterizes the system response. Those criteria follow directly from the dynamical equations describing the system.

We illustrate and validate this novel technique by solving the 2D stochastic Navier-Stokes equations in various geometries and compare with direct Monte Carlo simulations. We also apply the derived framework for the study of the statistical responses of an idealized “double gyre” model, which has elements of ocean, atmospheric and climate instability behaviors.

Finally, we use our new stochastic description for flow fields to study the motion of inertial particles in flows with uncertainties. Inertial or finite-size particles in fluid flows are commonly encountered in nature (e.g., contaminant dispersion in the ocean and atmosphere) as well as in technological applications (e.g., chemical systems involving particulate reactant mixing). As it has been observed both numerically and experimentally, their dynamics can differ markedly from infinitesimal particle dynamics. Here we use recent results from stochastic singular perturbation theory in combination with the DO representation of the random flow, in order to derive a reduced order inertial equation that will describe efficiently the stochastic dynamics of inertial particles in arbitrary random flows.